Mike Mayock and Antonio Brown may not know it, but after their now-public infight at practice Wednesday, they are now members of a fairly exclusive confederacy:Bay Area management-athlete dust-ups.Disclaimer: The following roll call is not comprehensive, nor listed in chronological order:1. Steve Mariucci vs. Terrell Owens Owens was a supremely talented receiver who also was a supreme pain. Mariucci, the 49ers coach, was already bristling over Owens’ antics when, on Sept. 24, …
Why do some fossils leave soft tissue remains? It takes guts, some scientists propose.Given that bacteria are the enemies of fossilization, could they actually play a role in preserving them? A new study thinks so. Science Magazine says,The overwhelming majority of organisms will never fossilize. Preservation of an animal’s anatomy in rocks is a rare event requiring a strict set of geologic and chemical conditions. Fossilized soft tissues like skin or muscle are even rarer, as they decay very quickly beyond recognition before mineralization occurs. It would be tempting to assume that microbes—the great mediators of rot and recycling—would be a natural enemy to high-quality fossils, but [Philip] Donoghue’s time spent watching shrimp waste away seems to hint at exactly the opposite.Donoghue’s team at University of Bristol, with others from Uppsala University, tested the rapidity of decay with brine shrimp. As expected, microbes quickly rendered them unrecognizable. If deprived of oxygen, though, the microbes could act as preservatives, the team thinks. PhysOrg explains:In watching the process of decomposition, the team noted that bacteria in the gut set to work right away, multiplying massively as they engaged in eating the dead tissue around them, so much so that they completely filled the cavity and eventually caused it to burst, which gave them access to other internal organs. If the shrimp was in a low oxygen environment when it died, such as being buried in sand, then most of the decomposition occurred from the inside, and then stopped as the bacteria ran out of air. But, because gut bacteria carry a lot of calcium and/or phosphates and because they form biofilms, after they died, they left behind a mold of sorts that showed the form of the gut organs of their dead host.This explanation predicts that exceptional fossils form in low-oxygen environments. It also predicts that the best preservation will be in the gut. For this reason, Donoghue’s team thinks that the evolution of a through-gut (mouth and anus) made exceptional preservation possible. Science Magazine explains:The researchers also point out that animals with true “through-guts”—ones that contain both a mouth and an anus—are much more likely to leave behind high-quality fossils than animals like corals and jellyfish, which eat and excrete through the same hole and are home to far fewer bacteria. The evolution of the anus appears to have given rise to a more complex microbiome and, thus, that “definitely increases your chances” of leaving behind an exceptional fossil, Donoghue says.And yet jellyfish fossils have been found in mass graveyards. Other soft-tissue remains, like the famous dinosaur red blood cells and osteocytes, were found in bone. The ink-sac of a squid still contained the carbon remains, enough to write words with it. Original material from feathers has been seen in Archaeopteryx fossils. These have nothing to do with gut bacteria. The explanation, therefore, seems inadequate:For many years scientists have debated whether the “Cambrian Explosion” was the result of more species suddenly developing or whether it was just the result of more remains being fossilized and found. In this new effort, the researchers suggest it might have had to do with the development of the anus and a through-gut.This cannot be true, since Ediacaran fauna have no guts, but are found around the world. These precede the Cambrian animals in the fossil record.The original paper on the Proceedings of the Royal Society B is open access. Here’s its gutsy explanation for the Cambrian explosion:The key role of gut-derived microbes in decay and, by inference, preservation means that the evolution of a through gut is likely to have important implications for preservation potential. Organisms that have blind guts, such as cnidarians, evert their guts such that they cannot maintain a gut flora. As a result, one might expect that such organisms would have little chance of preserving internal anatomy. Preservation must depend on the formation of favourable external biofilms that invade inwards, similar to the process observed in embryos, to stabilize their internal anatomical structure post-mortem, allowing a much longer window for internal autolytic processes to take effect and thus resulting in a much lower preservation potential for internal anatomy. This prediction is largely borne out by the fossil record. The overall quality of preservation is also often of a lower fidelity in described soft-bodied diploblast grade and blind-gut bearing organisms relative to groups possessing through-guts. For example, arthropods, annelids, priapulids and hyoliths can in many cases preserve aspects of gut, musculature and, in rare cases, neural tissues. On the other hand, diploblastic organisms, such as cnidarians, are typically found as impressions or outlines only (with the notable exception of very rare specimens of the probable cnidarian Olivooides [37,38]). This may go some way to explain the mismatch between phylogenetic and molecular clock expectations that diploblasts existed long before diploblast bilaterians, yet the fossil records of diploblast and triploblast eumetazoans is approximately coincident [39,40].Under almost all circumstances, pseudomorphing of biological anatomy by biofilm-forming microbes [5,13] may be limited to small structures. This process can provide a good explanation for the preservation of microfossils such as fossilized embryos as well as internal microenvironments, such as guts, within larger fossils. However, it is only in the most exceptional examples of exceptional fossil preservation that microbes replicate and preserve internal anatomy more generally. Bacterial biofilm pseudomorphing of anatomical structure may not be an important mechanism in preserving macroscale animal remains, even though endogenous microbes are important vectors of the decay of visceral tissues that leaves cuticle articulated and intact in Burgess Shale-type preservation. Thus, endogenous microbes exert a fundamental control on the amount of soft tissue morphology, and therefore the amount of anatomical information, that is preserved in Konservat-Lagerstätten [exceptionally preserved fossils]. Hence, the evolution of a through gut is an important factor in both the ecology of metazoan diversification and its fossil record. This finding also suggests the bauplan of an animal may act as a strong control on the processes of subsequent taphonomic transformation into an exceptionally preserved fossil, when the basic conditions required for the genesis of Konservat-Lagerstätten are met.The authors provide almost no reference to actual fossils when they state that “this prediction is largely borne out by the fossil record.” Brian Thomas at ICR has a list of 42 documented cases of soft tissue preservation (original tissue, not biofilms) found in fossils dating as far back as 360 million years in the evolutionary timescale. Most of them are not related to gut bacteria. They mention cnidarians (jellyfish) as unlikely to be preserved, but what about ctenophores (comb jellies) that are found in Cambrian strata? Soft tissue preservation is rampant in Burgess Shale fossils. Evolution News & Views reported fossils of modern-looking jellyfish dated by evolutionists at 580 million years old.So either Donoghue’s team did not do a thorough literature search, or is ignoring this evidence. Having made a prediction, though, that animals with anuses are the most likely to preserve biofilms that create “pseudomorphs” of soft tissues in low-oxygen conditions, they have opened the door to falsification in future studies. On the face of it, their lab work on shrimp is unlikely to capture the variety of circumstances that preserve animal tissues.Someone should call this the anal-retention theory of taphonomy.Why is nobody asking hard questions of the Donoghue team? Aren’t they aware that many exceptional fossils have nothing to do with gut bacteria? Aren’t they concerned that soft-tissue fossilization raises serious questions about the dating of fossils into millions of years?What is being ignored in this paper is far more important than what is being stated. Maybe they can’t stomach the notion that soft tissue challenges long ages. See Real Science Radio’s list of published papers on dinosaur soft tissue remains. (Visited 41 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
A violent clash broke out between inmates and police officers at Punjab’s Ludhiana Central Jail on Thursday, leaving one inmate dead and five injured. Around half a dozen police personnel also sustained injuries. The violence erupted around 11.30 a.m., after news of the death of a prison inmate, identified as Sunny Sood, at the Rajendra Medical College Hospital, Patiala, reached the jail. Sood was an undertrial in a case under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act.Violence over death“The news of Sood’s death triggered a riot on the jail premises. The 3,100-odd inmates refused to go back into the barracks and starting throwing stones, which were available due to some ongoing construction work. They also set on fire the record room and the car of the Jail Superintendent, and vandalised the jail property,” said an official statement. The inmates tried to break the prison gates and the police fired in the air to stop them, the statement added.Meanwhile, additional police forces, including tear-gas vehicles and around 300 personnel, reached the spot to control the violence. “The situation was finally brought under control around 1.30 p.m., when the prisoners were put back in the barracks,” added the statement. The prisoner killed in the violence was identified as Ajit Baba.Punjab Chief Minister Captain Amarinder Singh has ordered a magisterial inquiry, to be conducted by Deputy Commissioner, Ludhiana, into the incident. Opposition slams govt.Soon after the incident, Shiromani Akali Dal president Sukhbir Singh Badal demanded the immediate sacking of Punjab’s Jail Minister Sukhjinder Randhawa and blamed the State governmen for the complete breakdown of law and order in the State’s prisons. Capt. Amarinder told reporters in New Delhi that the incident did not reflect any law and order breakdown in Punjab. On the Opposition’s demand for Mr. Randhawa’s ouster, Capt. Amarinder said there was no question of it. “The Akali Dal and the Aam Aadmi Party have nothing constructive to say, except to make such illogical demands. We are dealing with the situation.”Leader of Opposition in the Punjab Assembly Harpal Singh Cheema also accused the Congress government of failing to control the deteriorating law and order situation in the State.
Abhinav BindraAbhinav Bindra on Tuesday bid adieu to Asian Games by clinching the individual bronze medal in men’s 10m air rifle event.Before winning the individual bronze, Bindra teamed up with Sanjeev Rajput and Ravi Kumar to finish third on the podium, helping India swell their medals tally to eight in the 17th edition of the mega-event.He finished third in 10m air rifle men’s finals behind China’s Haoran Yang and Yifei Cao to bag the bronze. Bindra aggregated 187.1 points while his Chinese opponents, 18-year-old Haoran won gold with 209.6 points and Yifei bagged silver with 208.9.Bindra had on Monday created a flutter by stating that Tuesday’s event would be his last in professional shooting.Bindra led the field till the first twelve shots before slipping to the fifth place and was saved from being ousted after a poor performance by Pourya Norouziyan of Iran and his scores of 10.5, 10.6 and 10.7.Earlier, the Beijing Olympic gold medallist fired India to the men’s team bronze in the 10m air rifle event while booking his berth in the eight-man finals with the fifth-best score in the qualifications.The Indian team that comprised of Bindra, Kumar and Rajput tallied 1863 to finish third behind gold medal winners – China 1886.4 and South Korea (silver) at 1867.6.Bindra tallied 625.4 points while Ravi Kumar contributed 618.9. Another veteran Rajput scored 618.7.Bindra was shooting brilliantly after a modest beginning but for his two poor shots of 9.1 on the 55th and 9.7 on the 60th, he could only finish 5th in the qualification as fourth-placed Korean Kim Sengdo fared only marginally better at 626.1.advertisementBindra’s sequences after each set of 10 shots were: 102.6, 105.3, 104.5, 104.1, 105.7 ? during which period he was looking at peak form but for the sudden misfiring on the 55th shot? and 103.2.This was the fifth medal fetched from the Ongnyeon range by the shooters in these Games, comprising one gold and four bronze, men’s pistol shooter Jitu Rai’s title win being the standout performance.The top three scores were notched up by Chinese shooters led by Cao Yifel (630.7), a new Games record.In the individual list, Ravi Kumar finished 20th and Rajput stood one rung below to be eliminated.Bindra, who was just outside the top eight after the first series, got into his groove later and after the fourth set of 10 shots, took a break to have a chat with rifle coach Stanislav Lapidus for a brief. He shot 10.9 on the 40th shot.He immediately came up with successive scores of 10.6, 10.7, 10.6 and 10.3 and was going great guns till a 9.1 spoilt his efforts.But he took a deep breath, got his thoughts together and shot 10.1 on the 56th before coming up with successive high scores of 10.9 and 10.8, which were followed by 10.5 and 9.7 on his last shot.